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Papers and References

Antioxidants and Antioxidant Enzymes.

Cadenas, E., and L. Packer, eds. 1996. Antioxidants in health and disease. In Vol. 3 of Handbook of antioxidants, edited by L. Packer and J. Fuchs, New York: Marcel Dekker.

Enstrom, J.E. 1997. Vitamin C in prospective epidemiological studies. Vitamin C in Health and Disease, edited by L. Packer and J. Fuchs. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Frei, B., ed. 1994. Natural antioxidants in human health and disease. San Diego: Academic Press.

Halliwell, B. 1996. Antioxidants in human health and disease. Annual Review of Nutrition 16:33-50.

Kagan, V.E., E.A. Serbinova, T. Forte, G. Scita, and L. Packer. 1992. Recycling of vitamin E in human low density lipoproteins. Journal of Lipid Research 33:385-97.

Packer, L. 1992. Interactions among antioxidants in health and disease: Vitamin E and its redox cycle. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 200 (2): 271-76.

Packer, L. 1994. Vitamin E is nature’s master antioxidant. Scientific American: Science and Medicine 1:54-63. (cf. Appendix).

Packer, L. 1996. Antioxidant defenses in biological systems: an overview. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Natural Antioxidants: Molecular Mechanisms and Health Effects, edited by L. Packer, M. Traber, and W. Xin. Champaign, Ill.: AOCS Press.

Packer, L., M. Hiramatsu, and T. Yoshikawa, eds. 1996. Free radicals in brain physiology and disorders. San Diego: Academic Press.

Traber, M.G., and L. Packer, 1995. Vitamin E: Beyond antioxidant function. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62:S1501-09.

The Free Radical Theory of Aging.

Beckman, K.B., and B.N. Ames. 1998. The free radical theory of aging matures. Physiological Reviews 78 (2):547-81.

de la Fuente, M., M.D. Ferrandez, M.S. Burgos, A. Soler, A. Prieto, J. Miquel. 1998. Immune function in aged women is improved by ingestion of vitamins C and E. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. Apr;76(4):373-80.

Emerit, I., and B. Chance, eds. 1992. Free radicals and aging. Basel, Switzerland: Berkhäuser Verlag.

Harman, D. 1956. Aging. A theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. Journal of Gerontology 11:298-300.

Harman, D. 1998. Free radicals in aging. Mol Cell Biochem. Dec;84(2):155-61.

Kirkwood, T.B., A. Kowald. 1997. Network theory of aging. Exp Gerontol. Jul-Oct;32(4-5):395-9.

Munch, G., J. Thome, P. Foley, R. Schinzel, P. Riederer, P. Advanced glycation endproducts in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease. 1997. Brain Res Rev. Feb;23(1-2):134-43.

Perez-Campo, R., M. Lopez-Torres, S. Cadenas, C. Rojas, G. Barja. 1998. The rate of free radical production as a determinant of the rate of aging: evidence from the comparative approach. J Comp Physiol [B] Apr;168(3):149-58.

Sharma, P., C.A. Rupar, J.W. Rip. 1998. Consequences of aging on mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes in cultured human fibroblasts treated with ascorbate. Gerontology 44(2):78-84.

Tomei, L.D., S.R. Umansky. 1998. Aging and apoptosis control. Neurol Clin 1998 Aug;16 (3):735-45.

Yu, B.P., C.M. Kang, J.S. Han, D.S. Kim. Can antioxidant supplementation slow the aging process? 1998. Biofactors 7(1-2):93-101.

Oxidant Sensitive Signal Transduction

Bierhaus, A., S. Chevion, M. Chevion, M. Hofmann, P. Quehenberger, T. Illmer, T. Luther, E. Berentshtein, H. Tritschler, M. Muller, P. Wahl, R. Ziegler, P.P. Nawroth. 1997. Advanced glycation end product-induced activation of NF-kappa B is suppressed by alpha-lipoic acid in cultured endothelial cells. Diabetes, 46(9):1481-90 Sep.

Blackwell, T.S., J.W. Christman. 1997. The role of nuclear factor-kappa B in cytokine gene regulation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol, 17(1):3-9 Jul.

Finkel, T. 1998. Oxygen radicals and signaling. Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 10 (2):248-53.

Fuchs, J., L. Packer, and G. Zimmer, eds. 1997. Lipoic acid in health and disease. In Vol. 6 of Antioxidants in health and disease, edited by L. Packer and J. Fuchs. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Giri, D.K., B.B. Aggarwal. 1998.Constitutive activation of NF-kappa B causes resistance to apoptosis in human cutaneous T cell lymphoma HuT-78 cells. Autocrine role of tumor necrosis factor and reactive oxygen intermediates. J Biol Chem, 273(22): 14008-14, May 29.

Mizuno, M., L. Packer. 1994. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid on expression of proto-oncogene c-fos. Biochemical & Biophysical Research Communications. 200(2):1136-42. Apr 29.

Montagnier, L., R. Olivier, and C. Pasquier, eds. 1998. Oxidative stress in cancer, AIDS and neurodegenerative diseases. In Vol. 1 of Oxidative stress and disease, edited by L. Packer and E. Cadenas. New York: Marcel Dekker.

Nakamura, H., K. Nakamura, and J. Yodoi. 1997. Redox regulation of cellular activation. Annual Review of Immunology 15:351-69.

Packer, L., ed. 1995. Biothiols: Glutathione and thioredoxin – Thiols in signal transduction and gene regulation. In Methods in enzymology. Vol. 252, San Diego: Academic Press.

Packer, L., and Y. Suzuki. 1993. Vitamin E and a-lipoate: Role in antioxidant recycling and activation of the NF-?B transcription factor. Journal of Molecular Aspects of Medicine 14:229-39.

Palmer, H.J., and K.E. Paulson. 1997. Reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in signal transduction and gene expression. Nutrition Reviews 55:353-61.

Sen, C.K., and L. Packer, 1996. Antioxidant and redox regulation of gene transcription. The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) Journal 10 (7):709-20.

Spencer, N.F., M.E. Poynter, S.Y. Im, R.A. Daynes. Constitutive activation of NF-kappa B in an animal model of aging. 1997. Int Immunol. Oct;9(10):1581-8

Sun, Y., Oberley, L.W. 1996. Redox regulation of transcriptional activators. Free Radic Biol Med 21(3):335-48.

Alpha Lipoic Acid.

Han, D., G. Handelman, L. Marcocci, C.K. Sen, S. Roy, H. Kobuchi, H.J. Tritschler L. Floh´e, L. Packer. 1997.Lipoic acid increases de novo synthesis of cellular glutathione by improving cystine utilization. Biofactors, 6(3):321-38 1997.

Kagan, V.E., A. Shvedova, E. Serbinova, S. Khan, C. Swanson, R. Powell and L. Packer. 1992. Dihydrolipoic acid – a universal antioxidant both in the membrane and in the aqueous phase. Biochemical Pharmacology 44: 1637-49.

Packer, L., and H.J. Tritschler. Alpha-lipoic acid – the metabolic antioxidant. 1996. Free Radical Biology & Medicine 20:625-26.

Packer, L., H.J. Tritschler, and K. Wessel. 1997. Neuroprotection by the metabolic antioxidant a-lipoic acid. Free Radical Biology & Medicine 22 (1-2):359-78.

Packer, L., and Y. Suzuki. 1993. Vitamin E and a-lipoate: Role in antioxidant recycling and activation of the NF-?B transcription factor. Journal of Molecular Aspects of Medicine 14:229-39.

Sen, C., S. Roy, and L. Packer. 1997. Therapeutic potential of the antioxidant and redox properties of a-lipoic acid. In Oxidative stress in cancer, AIDS, and neurodegenerative diseases, edited by L. Montagnier, R. Olivier, and C. Pasquier. New York: Marcel Dekker.


Bierenbaum, M.L., T.R. Watkins, A. Gapor, M. Geller, A.C. Tomeo. 1995. Antioxidant effects of tocotrienols in patients with hyperlipidemia and carotid stenosis. Lipids 30: 1179-1183.

Carroll, K.K., A.F. Chambers, A. Gapor, and N. Guthrie. 1997. Inhibition of proliferation of estrogen-receptor-negative MDA-MB-435 and –positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by palm tocotrienols and Tamoxifen, alone and in combination. Journal of Nutrition 127:544S-48S.

Nesaretnam, K., N. Guthrie, A.F. Chambers and K.K. Carol. 1995. Effect of tocotrienols on the growth of a human breast cancer cell line in culture. Lipids 30:1139-43.

Parker, R.A., B.C. Pearce, R.W. Clark, D.A. Gordon and J.K. Wright, 1993. Tocotrienols regulate cholesterol production in mammalian cells by post-transcriptional suppression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. Journal of Biological Chemistry 268:11230-38.

Suzuki, Y.J., M. Tsuchiya, S.R. Wassall, Y.M. Choo, G. Govil, V.E. Kagan, and L. Packer. 1993. Structural and dynamic membrane properties of alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocotrienol: implication to the molecular mechanism of their antioxidant potency. Biochemistry 32:10692-99.

Serbinova, E., V. Kagan, D. Han, and L. Packer. 1991. Free radical recycling and intramembrane mobility in the antioxidant properties of alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocotrienol. Free Radical Biology & Medicine 10:263-75.

Lab Reports.

Packer, L. 1996. Prevention of free radical damage in the brain – protection by alpha-lipoic acid. In Free Radicals in Brain Physiology and Disorders, edited by L. Packer, M. Hiramatsu, and T. Yoshikawa. San Diego: Academic Press.

Panigrahi, M., Y. B.R. Sadguna, S. Shivakumar, S. Kolluri, L. Roy, L. Packer, and V. Ravindranath. 1996. Alpha-lipoic acid protects against reperfusion injury following cerebral ischemia in rats. Brain Research 717:184-88.

Serbinova, E., S. Khwaja, A.Z. Reznick, and L. Packer.1992. Thioctic acid protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury in the isolated perfused Langendorff heart. Free Radical Research Communications 17:49-58.

The Studies.

Clark, L.C., G.F. Combs Jr., B.W. Turnbull, E.H. Slate, D.K. Chalker, J. Chow, L.S. Davis, R.A. Glover, G.F. Graham, E.G. Gross, A. Krongrad, J.L. Lesher, H.K. Park, B.B. Sanders, C.L. Smith, and R. Taylor. 1996. Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. A randomized controlled trial. Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study Group. Journal of the American Medical Association 276 (24):1957-63.

Combs, G.F. Jr,, L.C. Clark, B.W. Turnbull. 1997. Reduction of cancer risk with an oral supplement of selenium. Biomed Environ Sci. Sep;10(2-3):227-34.

Rimm, E.B., M.J. Stampfer, A. Ascherio, E. Giovannucci, G.A. Colditz, and W.C. Willett. 1993. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease in men. New England Journal of Medicine 328 (20):1450-56.

Stampfer, M.J., C.H. Hennekens, J.E. Manson, G.A. Colditz, B. Rosner, and W.C. Willett. 1993. Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women. New England Journal of Medicine 328 (20):1444-49.

Stephens, N., G.A. Parsons, P.M. Schofield, F. Kelly, K. Cheeseman, and M.J. Mitchison. 1996. Randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease. Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS). Lancet 347 (9004):781-86.

Other Opinions.

Diplock, A.T. Will the ‘good fairies’ please prove to us that vitamin E lessens human degenerative disease? 1997. Free Radic Res. Nov;27(5):511-32.

Hennekens, C.H. 1994. Antioxidant vitamins and cancer. Am J Med 1994 Sep 26;97(3A):2S-4S; discussion 22S-28S.

Lee, I.M. 1999. Antioxidant Vitamins in the Prevention of Cancer. Proc Assoc Am Physicians 1999 Jan;111(1):10-15.

Information and statements regarding dietary supplements herein has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Nor is it meant to substitute for the advice provided by your health care provider. The efficacy of antioxidant supplementation for children and during pregnancy is not established . If you have or suspect that you have a medical problem, please contact your physician.

Network AntioxidantsTM and The First Defense Against AgingTM are trademarks of Cyberpac, Inc. © Lester Packer, 1999. All Rights Reserved.

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